Planes that fell short of expectations
Great expectations: In the design stage Bf-110 was Schnellebomber – «fast bomber.” But he was born is a strategic fighter, which became a new word in the distribution of aircraft parts. According to the plan must be accompanied by a strategic fighter bombers as strategic and protect them at great distances from enemy fighters. By the beginning of the war was made a fleet of Bf-110.
Brief biography: Typhoon was created in 1940 by a British company Gloster Aircraft Company. This single-engined fighter, one of the biggest at the moment, was fitted with a powerful motor and four 20-mm cannon.
Great Expectations: Typhoon was created for the Battle of Britain “as a means of countering the Nazi bombers filled bomb British cities and industrial centers. Common sense suggests that a combination of high power and good weapons should make the Typhoon powerful weapon against the Luftwaffe.
The stark reality: The first surprise was that there was a bomber aircraft coped surprisingly bad. He was so heavy that while he gained height and speed, the Germans had had time to otbombitsya. The cause was a side effect of good weapons. British Typhoon moved into the category of storm troopers. The aircraft hung holders bomb pylons for rockets, put additional armor, and sent to attack German columns and crafts. It seemed that a career as a Typhoon in a new place to be successful, but then it turned out a surprising fact: the weighted plane suffered a bad habit during abrupt maneuvers, swinging its tail like a lizard. But unlike lizards aircraft could not grow a tail. Airplane finalized, the tail is strengthened and Typhoon have begun the battle path. But here – for the umpteenth time! – Discovered another unpleasant feature of the Typhoon: he was too much like a Stuka – German dive bomber Ju-87, so the anti-aircraft gunners and fighter allies are sometimes confused. This has made a profession Typhoon pilot is extremely unpopular. And those who fly on it and survived, were quick to forget him after the war as a nightmare.
Life lesson: Positioning of the aircraft is important. Appearance – too!
Brief biography: Heavy two-engined fighter, manufactured by Messerschmitt, equipped with a whole battery of guns and machine guns, and in 1938 he was the most secretive flight to Germany and a potential favorite Reichsmarshal Goring. Machine like other Parteigenosse, for example, Joseph Goebbels, who made a Bf-110 one of the main characters of the legend of invincibility of the Luftwaffe.
Harsh reality: Even during the Polish company plane plunged generals and engineers into a reverie, as has repeatedly been a victim of antediluvian Polish shelving units. And, although the planes of the Poles quickly ended, and the precipitate remained. Bf-110 finalized and thrown into a “battle for Britain”. Every day, the pilots reported about dozens of downed British cars and soon the German High Command believed that the enemy aircraft almost no … But Luftwaffe continued to suffer losses, not only from anti-aircraft fire … The investigation revealed that the German aces were engaged in regular registration, while brisk English fighters butchered heavy and clumsy Bf-110. It came to that for the maintenance of strategic fighter became detach other fighters – lighter and more mobile Bf-109. But then, recollecting himself, subject to Goering began to invent Bf-110 with new challenges.
Car tried as a light bomber, reconnaissance, ground attack, but in any role he does not take root because it was not enough altitude, agile and secure. In the end, it was possible to adapt a number of machines at night fighter, but by 1944 Allied bombers began to fly over Germany and in the afternoon, seeking the remains of German aircraft – including the last Bf-110 – right on the ground.
Life lesson: “interbreeding” yields results, but most of the country.
Martin B-26 Marauder
Brief Biography: The plane was designed before World War II, the firm Glenn L. Martin Company. Highest culture of design and production forced the U.S. military to believe us as ourselves. No wonder that when Martin invited the American generals speed bomber medium-range, they immediately happy podmahnuli contract. Moreover, the car had adopted at the design stage – an unprecedented event!
Great Expectations: Martin has created a plane with streamlined contours, the two most powerful at that time Pratt & Whitney engines and avionics best. To bomber flew as quickly as possible, it set a minimum of machine guns, and most importantly – its wings are made quite narrow and thin. During trials the new machine has given the speed over 500 km / h – more than most fighters of the time ..
The stark reality: The first battle showed that the B-26 is unable to escape even from a relatively not a quick Japanese fighters, not to mention Europe. Therefore, the car had to install extra machine guns, which increased the weight of the aircraft and, accordingly, reduced his speed. But it’s so bad! B-26 is often divided into takeoff and landing. The reason had narrow wings, which increases not only the speed of flight, but landing speed … if the first was good, the latter dramatically increases the demands on the skill of piloting the bomber. Novice pilots – whom the war became more and more – all too often unable to cope with the management. In addition, a B-26 were very weak landing gear, which are easily bends sharply at too sharp blow on the runway …
Managed by experienced pilots of the aircraft behaved well, was reliable and tenacious. But his reputation – and the plane was nicknamed “the factory of the widows” – nothing could save him. Once the fighting ended, all the Marauder, has not even exhausted the resources were sent under the knife.
Life lesson: What is created for professionals, is ineffective in the hands of beginners.
Brief biography: born by the Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1981. By the time the British make quite successful aircraft vertical takeoff and landing Harrier, Land of the Soviets had to somehow respond to this brazen challenge to Western military. The more that were just built the first Soviet aircraft carrier (again, in response to North Atlantic ships of this class), and equip them had nothing except enough helicopters, which can not solve all the combat missions at sea.
Great Expectations: The Yak-38 had hoped to not only Navy but Army. The latter implies that the light attack aircraft will take off from the combat formations of infantry. For example, in the military column moving truck to which a trailer hooked to the Yak-38. If necessary, the trailer is stopped, the plane takes off, dealing with bomb-hit attack, and returned to the column continues its path.
The harsh reality: Despite the fact that Soviet engineers have embodied the idea, already implemented in the West, this time successful “adaptation” to the Russian reality did not happen. Unlike the Harrier, who has worked as both engines for vertical takeoff and during horizontal flight, the Soviet machine was equipped with three engines, one of which was the main (providing the actual flight), and two subsidiary were involved in the case of a vertical take-off or the same landing. More engines – the more weight of the aircraft, therefore, the car requires more fuel and it can carry less armament.
Yak-38 could take a couple of dozen bombs or rockets, and flew at the same time only 250 kilometers.
But low efficiency was not the worst of its shortcomings. Worse was the extreme moodiness machines for takeoff and landing. To avoid an unnatural loss of personnel, the Yak-38 put the system of forced bailout in case of technical problems or equipment. But the system worked … the box. For example, during one test in the mode of vertical take-off at a height of 70 meters catapulted automatic pilot, after which the aircraft continued its flight alone, and after the development of fuel landed on the collective farm field. Yak-38 quickly became the leader of the Soviet Air Force in the number of accidents, although the victims, thanks to a bailout, it was not so much. And soon came to light helicopter Ka-29 – a heavily armored and reliable machine. Compared with weakly armed Yak-38, the helicopter was a real flying fortress, but also had nearly twice the range. Practicality took over ambition and the production of Yak-38 closed down.
Life lesson: A copy is almost always worse than the original.
Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk
Brief Biography: Born efforts of Lockheed in 1981. Almost five years flew only at night, because the degree of secrecy was extraordinary. In 1982, the airline had adopted as a secret tactical air groups 4450, and in 1986 he himself declassified, crashed during a test flight.
Great expectations: Do you know why the missiles are much more popular among the military aircraft? Just after the bomber overreach air defenses, the remaining time is just enough crew to bailout. Technology Stealth, which was made on the F-117A, is extremely difficult to detect the radar. Remaining invisible to radar, the plane was supposed to penetrate into the enemy, destroy the radar, command posts and anti-aircraft guns. After that, the usual bombers over enemy territory to feel like home.
But the shape of the case, complicating the reflection of radar radiation, as well as covering several layers of smart paints, also absorb radiation, did not contribute to the aerodynamics …
The stark reality: Already on the flight testing of F-117A showed a peculiar way: he was very fragile and capricious in operation and maintenance. For example, the techniques, so as not to damage the aforementioned layers of paint on the surface of the aircraft went into his socks.
But after an accidental declassification plane quickly became the star fighters and magazine covers: a custom look of the machine the Pentagon decided to use the chance to intimidate a potential enemy. Almost every American movie about the war “appeared the silhouette of Nighthawk. As a result, F-117A has acquired quite a reputation nesbivaemogo aircraft, which stood up to the operation in Yugoslavia, where Serbs shot down near Belgrade Nighthawk and showed the wreckage around the world.
The Americans at first quick to say that Stealth dropped himself because of engine failure … and then admitted that the plane was shot down, but the victory was credited with the newest anti-aircraft missile system S-300, which Russia ostensibly put Yugoslavia in circumvention of the sanctions. The reality turned out to be mournfully: “flunked» F-117 old anti-aircraft missile system S-125, manufactured back in the fifties. The scandal was a grand: a program for Stealth, which have invested billions of dollars have been unable to mask the aircraft from the radar, produced in Soviet times. Therefore, 22 April 2006 the last copies of the Nighthawk made the last flight and went to the museum.